### Electrical Engineering

**Professor Martin **

The increasing use of electrical and electronic equipment in modern vessels makes necessary a more thorough treatment of electrical and electronic engineering than is customary in a non-electrical engineering curriculum. An intensive, analytical and practical course in electrical circuits and electronics is followed by a study of electro-mechanical devices and control systems. Marine applications are given where possible.

**ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING I – CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS**

Circuit topics include steady analysis of both single-phase and three-phase A/C, with a focus on power calculations including load analysis. Wave-shaping circuits, filters, and resonance are introduced. Electronics topics include solid state diodes, transistors, and operation amplifiers. Digital electronics topics including logic circuits and integrated circuits are introduced. Two hours of class and two hours of laboratory per week in the first semester.

**ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING II – MACHINES AND CONTROLS**

A continuation of Electrical Engineering I covers principles of electro-magnetic devices and steady-state performance of transformers and rotating machines. Both synchronous and asynchronous machines are studied. A discussion of marine electrical propulsion systems and ship automation concludes the course. Two hours of class and two hours of laboratory per week in the second semester.

### Engineering Science

**Professors Gallagher, Onas, Royce, Werner, and Wiggins**

Engineering science courses deal with the application of knowledge gained in the basic sciences to the solution of engineering problems, using the theories and techniques of mathematical analysis. The principles learned are later applied in ship and power plant design. Engineering drafting and laboratory skills are included in this group of courses.

The extensive use of computers in the engineering and business communities makes it essential that all Webb graduates be literate in computer use and skilled in using complex programs. Some exposure to and practice in varied computer capabilities are stressed, including scientific and engineering problem solving, word processing and computer-aided graphics.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**PROGRAMMING AND APPLICATIONS**

This course provides an introduction to computer programming and focuses on the development of the logical problem-solving skills that are essential in engineering. Topics covered include logical expressions, conditional statements, variable types, looping, subroutines, and functions. The ability to properly annotate and debug coding is stressed. Student skills in the application of widely-used, commercially-available software such as Excel®, MathCad®, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA®), and MATLAB® are developed and exercised to facilitate their use in subsequent mathematics, science, and engineering courses. Two hours of class and one hour of laboratory per week in the first semester.

**STATICS**

This is a course in applied vector mechanics with emphasis on static equilibrium. Topics include forces, moments, couples, equivalent force-couple systems, controls, distributed forces, and Coulomb friction. The application of the free body diagram in the analysis of static equilibrium of frames, machines, and trusses is stressed. Three hours of class per week in the second semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**STRENGTH OF MATERIALS**

The concepts of stress and strain of engineering materials are described and applied to various components such as beams, rods, and columns. Methods for calculating stresses in these components are introduced using Mohr’s Circle and other techniques. The response of components to axial, bending, and torsional loads is discussed and applied to problems such as torsion of shafts, stresses in pressure vessels, and buckling of columns. The deflection of beams is extensively treated. The basic concepts of fatigue are introduced. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**ENGINEERING GRAPHICS (CAD) **

This course develops the student’s ability to use modern engineering graphic techniques on computer-aided design (CAD) software. Students are introduced to fundamentals CAD usage with AutoCad in the initial part of the course. After some exercises from a text, they develop drawings on their own of various marine-related objects. The final part of the course is an introduction to 3-dimensional parametric modeling using SolidWorks software. Two hours of computer lab per week in the first semester.

**THERMODYNAMICS**

Properties of fluids, concepts of the system, control volume, work, heat, energy, entropy, the laws of thermodynamics, and reversibility are studied and applied to topics in power cycles, combustion, and psychrometry. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**DYNAMICS**

The motion of particles and rigid bodies is studied. Topics include: kinematics and kinetics of particles, kinetics of systems of particles, plane kinematics and kinetics of rigid bodies, and three dimensional dynamics of rigid bodies. Three hours per week in the second semester.

**FLUID MECHANICS**

This course examines both real and ideal fluids. It examines fluid statics, including hydrostatic forces, pressure at a point, and manometry. Fluid dynamics are discussed and the Bernoulli Equation is developed. Fluid kinematics are presented along with the justification for the material derivative. As more complex fluid processes are examined, finite control volumes and differential analysis are presented. Ideal flow concepts of velocity potentials and stream functions are introduced and applied to simple planar flows. The Navier-Stokes equations are developed for viscous flows and applied to simple problems. Other topics include fluid properties, dimensional analysis and modeling, and viscous flow in pipes. Three hours per week in the second semester.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**VIBRATIONS**

This course introduces mechanical vibrations of single and multi-degree-of-freedom systems. It lays the foundation for the study of vibration analysis in areas related to ship design. Topics include derivation of the equation of motion and response of different types of mechanical models under free and forced oscillation, with and without damping.

Linearization of simple nonlinear systems is employed to allow a linear vibrational analysis. Computation of Fourier series approximation of specified periodic excitation is introduced. The concept of resonance and its influence on a vibrating system’s response amplitude are discussed. An experiment using a pendulum is provided as a course project to allow students to take measurements of vibration parameters of interest. Response under a periodic force of irregular form and convolution integrals are included. Decomposition of a transient process into forced and damped free oscillations is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The design of a vibration absorber to ameliorate vibrations on vessels is used as an application of coupled oscillators. Complex algebra and Fourier series are used throughout. Vibration measurement is discussed and demonstrated. Exact and approximate methods for determining mode shapes, natural frequencies, and modal analysis are included. Analysis of continuous systems is introduced. Three hours per week in the first semester.

### Humanities & Social Sciences

**Professor Harris and Adjuncts**

The communications courses are designed to meet the needs of students in the professional and cultural uses of the English language in writing and speaking. The courses in the humanities are designed to acquaint the students principally with the heritage of Western Civilization.

Webb’s proximity to the prestigious cultural institutions in New York City permits academic field trips to be arranged to supplement classroom instruction in the humanities and social sciences.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION**

Instruction and practice in oral, written, and graphical communication: oral and written reports, letters, summaries, graphs, and figures. Exercises prepared in conjunction with courses in introductory naval architecture and other courses. Two hours per week in the first semester.

**POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY**

A historical and philosophical analysis of the major political theorists of the Western Tradition beginning with the birth of philosophy among the ancient Greeks. Major thinkers treated in this course include Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, et al. Some of the key themes considered include theory of human nature, the concepts of law, justice and authority, the idea of the “good” state, and the notion of human happiness as it relates to the socio-political environment. Three hours per week in the second semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**THE WESTERN CULTURAL TRADITION – I**

The first in a two-course sequence in the history of ideas. This interdisciplinary course traces the development of the Classical and Romantic world views through examination of literature, painting, sculpture, music, and architecture. Through this course students will become familiar with some of the major writers and artists and with some of the great works of western cultural achievement through the nineteenth century. Several required field trips. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**THE WESTERN CULTURAL TRADITION – II**

The second course in a two-course sequence in the history of ideas. This interdisciplinary course traces a number of developments that inform “Modernism” (the notion of *modernité*) through examination of literature, painting, music, architecture, and film. Through this course students will become familiar with some of the major writers, artists, and ideas of the late-nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Several required field trips. Two hours in the second semester.

The art project assignment gives students the opportunity to recreate a famous painting or illustration.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**HUMANITIES/SOCIAL SCIENCES ELECTIVE**

Students are allowed to choose a course from a list of classes in the humanities and social sciences. Courses will be taught by both full-time Webb faculty and by adjunct faculty who are experts in particular subject areas. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT**

An examination of the development of the American national government from the mid-eighteenth century to the 1950s. Emphasis will be on how enduring values combined with changed circumstances to produce new roles for the national government. Two hours per week in the second semester.

*SENIOR YEAR*

*SENIOR YEAR*

**ETHICS AND THE PROFESSION**

This course explores some of the most influential ethical systems in the tradition of moral philosophy. The examination of these works is accompanied by class discussions that examine the practical application of these systems in the business of everyday life. Class discussions depart from the two crucial questions that form the basis of all moral inquiry: How should a person live? What do we owe to others? These questions will be explored through a variety of mediums including abstract philosophy and specific case studies drawn from the fields of science, engineering, business, and literature in order to develop the critical tools to evaluate the ethical codes that govern the students’ profession. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS**

Instruction and practice in public presentations of a technical nature in naval architecture and marine engineering: organizing material, speaking effectively, and presenting visuals. Class is divided into small groups to give each student maximum opportunity for practice and improvement. Two hours per week in the second semester.

### Marine Engineering

**Professors Gallagher, Scott, Werner, and Wiggins**

This division includes those courses that pertain directly to marine machinery. The sequence begins with an introductory survey of propulsion and auxiliary systems. In the following years, detailed studies of machinery and systems are undertaken, including design aspects of steam generators, steam and gas turbines, diesel engines, heat exchangers, power transmission systems, main engine support systems, piping systems, HVAC systems, and control systems. The concepts of system integration, configuration management, and rational evaluation of alternative approaches are stressed.

The sequence culminates in a project in which the students prepare an outline proposal for a complete power plant for a specific application and undertake an investigation of its economic merit in comparison with a group of likely alternatives.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**INTRODUCTION TO MARINE ENGINEERING SYSTEMS (ME I)**

This course presents the fundamentals of marine propulsion systems in which the overall needs of ship board powering are described, followed by a detailed discussion of steam, diesel, gas-turbine, and nuclear-powered prime movers. Students gain an understanding of the components and their function in each of these types of propulsion. A lab component of the course requires the students, in small groups, to run a steam plant in the marine engineering lab and to disassemble and reassemble a small diesel engine. The course begins the marine engineering program and provides background to students for their sophomore sea term. Two hours per week in the second semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**MARINE ENGINEERING SYSTEMS ****COMPONENTS (ME II)**

This course builds on the Introduction to Marine Engineering Systems course and presents the fundamentals of auxiliary shipboard systems and components. Auxiliary systems presented include fuel, compressed air, bilge and ballast, cooling water, sanitary and sewage, HVAC and refrigeration, and electrical. Components discussed include pumps, compressors, valves and piping, heat exchangers, purifiers, steering machinery, deck machinery, distilling plants, sewage plants, and refrigeration plants. The course includes hands-on experiences and field trips to visit ships and other marine facilities. The course includes additional preparations for the sophomore sea term. Two hours of class and two hours of lab per week in the first semester.

**MARINE ENGINEERING MACHINE DESIGN (ME III)**

This course involves the design of specific machine elements such as shafts, gears, couplings, clutches, brakes, screw fasteners, and bolted joints. It applies the theory from the Strength of Materials course to practical problems in machine design. In addition, dynamic and fatigue stress analysis are introduced. Marine examples are used for the various elements, such as marine gearing and shafting. Three hours per week in the second semester.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**MARINE ENGINEERING APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS (ME IV)**

The course consists of three distinct, related parts. Part one deals with the thermodynamic design of a combined steam turbine/gas turbine system. Design trade-offs and optimization are included. Part two deals with the design of the steam turbine from part one. Consideration of both thermodynamics and fluid mechanics are included. Part three provides coverage of heat transfer. One-dimensional steady and unsteady conduction and the empirical approach to convection are discussed. Brief coverage of radiation is provided. This part of the course culminates with the design of one of the heat exchangers in a COGAS plant. Design trade-offs and optimization are included. Three hours per week in the first semester.

**SHIP AUXILIARY SYSTEMS DESIGN (ME V)**

This course covers the design of shipboard machinery systems, building on the previous marine engineering courses and the students’ examination of systems while on board ships. The principles of fluid flow are used to design piping and hydraulic systems. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning design is covered. The final part of the course introduces monitoring and control systems, using analog/digital conversions, programmable logic controllers, and feedback controls. Throughout all of the design work, consideration of the relevant regulatory requirements is included. Four hours of class per week during the second semester.

*SENIOR YEAR*

*SENIOR YEAR*

**SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS (ME VI)**

This course includes a detailed analysis of diesel engines, a review of gas turbines, and completion of a machinery plant design for the vessels used in the Ship Design sequence. This design exercise draws on all the prior marine engineering courses as well as the student’s shipboard experience, in that all the propulsion and auxiliary equipment items are selected from vendor information, and the related machinery systems are designed to support them. A lab sequence involving hands-on work with low-speed and high-speed diesels is included. Four hours of class and two hours of laboratory per week in the first semester.

### Mathematics

**Professor Goloubeva**

Mathematics is an analytical tool used in all science and engineering courses. At the same time, by its very nature, mathematics is an abstract science. Mathematics at Webb is presented with the focus on applied mathematics, a branch of mathematics which is drawing on the physical world for its motivation, developing abstract concepts to refine the physical ideas, and finally applying those abstractions to mathematical modeling and better understanding of the phenomena of nature. Many Webb students go on to graduate work involving higher mathematics, and it is a strong objective of the mathematics program to prepare them well for this work.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**MATHEMATICS I – CALCULUS I**

This is an introductory course whose main goals are to fill in the background of students who have already had an exposure to calculus in high school, to deepen their understanding of the material, and to develop their ability for abstract reasoning and mathematical modeling. The course starts with a discussion of vectors in the plane and in space, and basic vector operations, including dot and cross products. The course continues with a review of the real number system and inequalities, algebra of complex numbers, and the theory of elementary functions such as exponentials, logarithms, trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometric functions, hyperbolic functions and their inverses. The topics covered include limits, continuity, derivatives of functions of one variable, application of derivatives to curve sketching and to simple real-life problems involving related rates, and optimization. The mean value theorem is covered. Linear and Taylor polynomial approximations are discussed and applied to limits via L’Hopital’s rule. The course includes a discussion of basic numerical methods such as method of bisections and Newton’s method. The course concludes with a brief discussion of integration. To develop students’ ability for abstract reasoning and to reach a deeper understanding of the material, the discussion often includes proofs. The class meets four hours per week in the first semester.

**MATHEMATICS II – CALCULUS II**

The course starts with a discussion of integration, integration techniques, and applications of integrals. The topics of discussion include the Riemann Integral, the review of the basic techniques of integration such as substitution, integration by parts, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric techniques of integration. The course covers applications of definite integrals to simple problems involving area between curves, arc length, volume, projectile motion, work, and center of mass. The course continues with a discussion of the theory of parametric equations, plane curves, and polar coordinates. The concepts of calculus are extended to curves described by parametric equations and polar coordinates. In this course the geometry of three-space is covered more extensively than in Mathematics I. Cylindrical and spherical coordinates are introduced. Emphasis is placed on visualization and graphical representation of surfaces in space.

This course contains most of the calculus of functions of several variables and includes concepts of limits and continuity of functions of several variables, partial derivatives, tangent planes and linear approximations, gradients, differentials and directional derivatives. In this course we introduce the mathematical basis for finding the maximum or minimum of functions of several variables. Optimization problems for functions of several variables are introduced.

The discussion includes constrained optimization and the method of Lagrange multipliers. The course also includes a brief introduction to linear algebra, which covers the rudiments of matrix algebra. Determinants are also introduced here. The course concludes with a unified discussion of real infinite series. The class meets four hours per week in the second semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR *

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**MATHEMATICS III – DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS**

This class is a basic course in differential equations. It starts with classification of differential equations. It continues with the discussion of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), starting with first order ordinary differential equations. The concepts of direction fields, boundary, and initial value problems are introduced. Several methods of solution of first-order ODEs are considered. It is emphasized that each method is applicable to a certain subclass of first-order equations. The topics covered include methods of solutions of linear equations, separable equations, homogeneous and exact equations, Bernoulli and autonomous equations. The main methods under discussion are the integration of factors, variation of parameters, and separation of variables. The idea of approximating a solution by numerical computation is introduced in the discussion of Euler’s method.

The course continues with a discussion of the general theory and methods of solution of second and *n*th order ordinary differential equations. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the solution are analyzed. Substantial attention is given to methods of solution of second-order differential equations with constant coefficients. Methods under discussion are the reduction of order, undetermined coefficients, the variation of parameters, series solutions, and the Laplace transform.

The course concludes with a discussion of partial differential equations, Fourier series, and separation of variables as a method for solving partial differential equations. Throughout the course, applications of differential equations to simple physical problems are thoroughly discussed. The class meets three hours per week in the first semester.

**MATHEMATICS IV – ADVANCED ****ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS**

There are essentially three separate components of the course. The first component involves a discussion of multiple integrals and vector calculus. This material can best be described as the mathematics needed to study fluids. The course covers the theory of vector-valued functions. Multiple integrals are covered extensively. Emphasis is placed on transformation of space/coordinates and the role of the Jacobian. The concepts of vector and scalar fields, curl, and divergence are introduced from a very physical point of view, as are line and surface integrals. The three major theorems of vector calculus – Green’s theorem, Stoke’s theorem, and the Divergence (Gauss’) theorem – are covered. A strong emphasis is placed on physical interpretation. This material is highly visual and makes extensive use of Maple to illustrate the concepts.

The second component of this class involves complex variables. This component covers the basic arithmetic and geometry of the complex number system. Then the calculus of functions of complex numbers is studied, including the Cauchy-Riemann equations and the implications for harmonic functions. Complex exponential, trigonometric, and logarithmic functions are defined and studied. There is a brief treatment of conformal mapping. In addition, standard integral procedures are discussed.

The third component of this course covers the remaining essential parts of linear algebra and differential equations. The class works more extensively with matrices, matrix functions, and the calculus of matrix functions. Then it discusses methods of solution of systems of first-order linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and methods of solution of systems of differential equations. The course meets four hours per week in the second semester.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS**

This course begins with an introduction to probability theory, including set theoretic and combinatorial concepts. This is followed by treatments of discrete random variables and distributions and continuous random variables. Generating functions are discussed at some length. Particular emphasis is placed on the Rayleigh and Weibull distributions, which are applied subsequently in the Ship Dynamics course as models of wave spectra and are also encountered as models of the manufacturing process. The latter third of this course addresses the application of statistical methods to engineering experimentation, beginning with an introduction to estimation and hypothesis testing and culminating with an overview of experiment design. The course meets four hours per week in the first semester.

### Naval Architecture

**Professors Daidola, Gallagher, Onas, Royce, and Werner**

The fundamental laws of buoyancy, stability, and strength are fully considered, as these have universal application to all kinds of ships and floating structures. The study of naval architecture is begun in the freshman year in order to familiarize the student as early as possible with ship and shipbuilding terms, technical facets of ship analysis and design, shipyard arrangements, and general methods of ship construction. Major subjects covered are hydrostatics, stability, ship structure, ship dynamics, resistance, and propulsion. Knowledge gained is subsequently applied in the design courses.

Owing to the wide variety of types and sizes of ships in service at the present time, it is inevitable that a certain amount of specialization is necessary for their design and construction. It is the aim of the courses to cover the fundamentals of naval architecture in the time available, so that the specialized study of any one of a number of particular types or classes of ships may be left to the individual who, after graduation, is especially concerned with them.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**INTRODUCTION TO NAVAL ARCHITECTURE (NA I)**

This course presents an overall introduction to the marine industry. The terminology and the technologies of naval architecture are presented. Graphic techniques, which form the basis for the naval architect’s understanding of ship form and lines drawing, are introduced. The broad spectrum of ship types – from sailing yachts and tugs to mammoth tankers and aircraft carriers, from submarines to air cushion vehicles – are described. Basic principles of hull structure are introduced, and from this preliminary material a consideration of how to build ships is presented. The final part of the course is a direct preparation for the first winter work period. Two hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week in the first semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**SHIP STATICS (NAII)**

This introductory course in hydrostatics of ships covers buoyancy, weights, metacenters, and stability at small and large angles of heel and trim.

Stability after damage and hydrostatic considerations in drydocking and grounding are treated. In the project part of the course, curves of form are calculated for a small vessel with much of the work done on a computer. Cross curves of stability are also calculated for the same hull form. Two hours of class and two hours of lab per week in the first semester.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**SHIP RESISTANCE AND PROPULSION (NA III)**

The components of a ship’s resistance and the effects of important hull parameters are discussed as well as the special problems of bulbous bows and hull appendages. Full-scale prediction of ship resistance by means of model tests, standard series, and regression analyses are examined and criticized. Wake fraction, thrust deduction, and propulsive coefficient are presented. Limited discussion of screw propellers and operating points are provided. Two hours per week of lecture and a two hour laboratory every week in the first semester.

**SHIP STRUCTURES (NA IV)**

The course provides a thorough introduction to modern ship structure analysis and design. The loading experienced by ship structures is outlined. The engineering properties of shipbuilding materials and typical ship structure arrangements are described. Methods for the analysis and design of the hull girder, beams, girders, unstiffened and stiffened plate panels are introduced. Failure due to yielding and buckling are considered. The assessment of fatigue performance of welded connections is also described. Both analytical and finite element methods for analysis are presented and applied to typical ship structure. Two hours of class and two hours of laboratory per week in the second semester.

**SENIOR YEAR**

**SHIP DYNAMICS (NA V)**

In the first part of this course, the student applies knowledge of rigid-body dynamics, vibrations, and hydrodynamics to the study of seakeeping, which addresses the ship’s response behavior in ocean waves. In the second part, the ship’s maneuvering theory in calm water is developed. The seakeeping part starts with wave statistics. The wave environment is described mathematically first using the regular wave theory and then is expanded to a stochastic or probabilistic description of the seaway using wave spectrums and scatter diagrams. The ship equations of motion are developed for seakeeping, and calculation of the wave excitation force, added mass and radiation damping are introduced, based on strip theory and velocity potential formulation. The response of a ship to ocean waves is treated, first to a single wave train and then to a wave spectrum using linear superposition principles.

Calculations are compared to scale model test results. The ship response in head seas is investigated experimentally using a Series 60 model in the Robinson Model Basin and compared with published seakeeping test results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using the Rankine-Panel Method is introduced as the numerical tool to investigate the ship response in time domain and analyzed in the frequency domain. The numerical test results are validated against the seakeeping lab test data and published test results. Seakeeping criteria are discussed, including critical vessel responses such as roll, deck wetness, slamming, and impact loads.

The equations of motion for maneuvering are developed in the second part of the course. Analytical and experimental methods of determining maneuvering coefficients are presented. Controls-fixed stability is discussed in detail and calculation of stability index is carried-out. The theory of ship turning is presented with calculation of turning parameters, emphasizing the limitation of linear theory. An introduction to rudder design follows and methods to evaluate the rudder performance characteristics are introduced. Three hours of class per week in the first semester.

**PROPULSOR DESIGN & CFD (NA VI) **

This course examines the theory and design of the screw propeller for ship propulsion and exposes students to introductory computational fluid dynamics.Lifting line and lifting surface representations are used to design blade sections of a propeller for a candidate vessel. Cavitation criteria are considered.

Other propulsors are discussed for comparison. The course also considers computational fluid dynamics from a potential and fully viscous point of view. Free surface problems for simplified hull forms are considered. Three hours per week in the second semester.

**MARINE TRANSPORTATION (NA VII)**

This course gives an overview of marine transportation systems, including tankers, breakbulk, drybulk, and container lines from a business standpoint. The fundamentals of maritime economics and financial management are presented, including a fleet analysis based on the ship design project begun in the Ship Design I course. Case studies and a research paper are used as the primary learning tools. Management techniques and linear programming are included. Three hours of class per week in the second semester.

### Science

**Professor Wiggins**

Under this heading are grouped the courses in physics, chemistry, and materials science. These courses introduce scientific methods and provide training in the fundamentals upon which engineering knowledge depends. The courses in chemistry and materials science prepare the naval architect and marine engineer to cope with the materials used in shipbuilding.

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

*FRESHMAN YEAR*

**CHEMISTRY**

This is an introductory course in general chemistry. Topics covered include stoichiometry, inorganic reactions, ideal gases, condensed phases, chemical equilibrium, and acids and bases. Solubility, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry are also covered. Three hours of class per week and two hours of laboratory every other week in the first semester.

**PHYSICS I – ELEMENTARY MECHANICS**

The course provides a rigorous introduction to elementary mechanics. Vector algebra is introduced and used where appropriate. Newton’s Laws of Motion are introduced and applied to the kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies both for linear and rotational motion. The subjects of forces on bodies, momentum, work and energy are described and applied to problems. Three hours of class per week in the first semester.

**PHYSICS II – SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION, LIGHT AND SOUND**

An introduction to wave theory starting with simple harmonic motion, mechanical waves, sound waves, light waves, traveling and standing waves. Doppler effect, geometric and physical optics including reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference are also covered. Two hours of class per week in the second semester. Supporting laboratory exercises are conducted in the Science Lab course.

**MATERIALS SCIENCE**

The structure-property-processing relationships of engineering materials are investigated. Emphasis is placed on understanding the general behavior and capabilities of the different types of materials. The primary focus of this course is on metals, especially steel. Major topics include crystal structures, including crystal imperfections; diffusion in solids; mechanical properties, including tensile, hardness, impact, and fatigue testing; work hardening and annealing; phase equilibrium; and heat treatment, including non-equilibrium transformations such as martensite. Other topics include introductory coverage of stainless steel, cast iron, polymers, and composite materials. Optimal use of materials in ocean-going systems is stressed. Three hours of class per week in the second semester. Supporting laboratory exercises are conducted in the Science Lab Course.

**SCIENCE LAB**

This course supports Physics II and Materials Science by providing hands-on laboratory exercises for both courses. While half the class is performing a series of physics experiments dealing with basic wave mechanics, the other half is performing laboratory exercises to address material properties—from crystal structure modeling to microstructure imaging. Mechanical properties of materials are also studied. Two hours per week during the second semester.

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

*SOPHOMORE YEAR*

**PHYSICS III – ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

This course covers electrostatic and electromagnetic fields; resistors, insulators and capacitors; magnetic properties of matter and inductance; instruments and measurements; circuit analysis using mesh currents and node voltages; transients and network theorems. Two hours of class and two hours of laboratory per week in the second semester.

**HYDRODYNAMICS**

The fundamentals of ship hydrodynamics are introduced in the context of naval architecture and ocean engineering. Conservation of mass and linear momentum and the Navier-Stokes equations are revisited. Description of the flow and its visualization are discussed, and the mathematical formulation of continuous flows is presented. The use of potential flow in understanding the fundamentals of fluid flow around a ship is included. Boundary layer theory is developed in relation to hull forms and lifting surfaces. The Flow Channel in the Haeberle Laboratory is used to demonstrate velocity measurement and visualization techniques of the flow around lifting surfaces. Vortex dynamics theory is introduced for simplified problems. An introduction is made to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with its assumptions and limitations. Unsteady motion and the concept of added mass are introduced, and calculations are carried-out for simple and more complicated shapes. Lift and drag topics include NACA foil sections, lifting line theory, Joukowski airfoils, and Glauert’s method for optimum planform. Green’s functions are introduced, for simplified potential theory problems. Potential theory is further developed for added mass and damping on a circular cylinder. Prediction of impact force is presented in terms of von Karman’s impact theory. Forces on a column are examined using Morrison’s equation. Three hours per week in the second semester.

### Ship Design

**Dean Emeritus Compton, Professors Gallagher and Onas**

These three courses synthesize the course material taken to date—especially in the naval architecture and marine engineering curricula—and represent the capstone sequence of the Webb academic program. Both team and individual project work characterize these courses as do analysis and development of presentation skills.

*JUNIOR YEAR*

*JUNIOR YEAR*

**SHIP DESIGN I (SD I)**

The design process is presented in overview from the feasibility to the detail levels. Small teams of students undertake the initial design of a boat, ship, or offshore vessel of their choice, being led through the iterative design process with the aid of accompanying lectures on various aspects: hull sizing, weights and centers estimation, power prediction, initial stability, space and general arrangements, etc. Industry mentors are identified to help develop the problem statements, guide the students through the technical aspects of their design, and provide networking opportunities. The knowledge gained in previous naval architecture courses is applied, and the student is taught to appreciate the effects on the design process of physical and fiscal restraints, government and classification society regulations and unique mission requirements. Oral and written design reports are required. Presentation of student designs to a panel of invited professionals is required. The design problem statement for a large, oceangoing ship is developed, and initial conceptual sizing is performed. This oceangoing ship design will be developed further in subsequent courses (SD II, SD III, NA VI, and ME VI). One hour of class and four drawing room hours per week in the second semester.

*SENIOR YEAR*

*SENIOR YEAR*

**SHIP DESIGN II (SD II)**

The preliminary design to meet the specifications developed in SD I is completed by each student in several projects over the semester. A general arrangement of the vessel, along with a powering analysis, is the first step. A lines plan is then developed, based on the preliminary hull from the first step. Next, another iteration of the arrangements is made, and finally the intact and damaged stability are analyzed. Two hours of class and four drawing room hours per week in the first semester.

**SHIP DESIGN III (SD III)**

The preliminary design of a ship is concluded from the previous semesters. Classification rules are revisited with focus on understanding the terminology and the relevant structural requirements applicable to the project. Hull girder longitudinal strength requirements are evaluated based on classification society rules and quasi-static loading analysis using a longitudinal weight distribution method and general hydrostatics software. Using two representative ship operating condition and the calculated loads, the students are asked to design the mid-ship section of a ship and verify that the longitudinal structure meets classification society requirements.

Design of transverse structural members such as bulkheads and/or deep web frames is carried out, with verification that they meet classification society requirements. Structural performance of the hull girder is then analyzed. Finite element software is used in the structural design and analysis. Material selection, structural weight, producibility, and access for inspection and maintenance will be emphasized during the design. Ship production practices are presented. One hour of class and four drawing room hours per week in the second semester.

### Other Requirements

**ENGINEERING ECONOMICS**

Coverage of the principles of engineering economics, including compound interest, present worth, annual cash flow, rate of return, depreciation, taxes, and replacement analysis. One hour per week in the first semester senior year.

**THESIS**

In order to qualify for graduation, each student in the senior year is required to prepare and submit a written thesis, in or related to the field of naval architecture or marine engineering under the direction of a member of the faculty. Senior theses may be individual or team efforts. In addition to a written thesis, seniors are required to present orally the results of their thesis efforts to the assembled student body, faculty, and administration in the late spring of their senior year.

**SENIOR SEMINAR**

The Senior Seminar, conducted during the final semester, is designed to introduce the seniors to the human factors, business considerations, management techniques, and analytical concepts they may expect to encounter after graduation. Seminar leaders are drawn from the Webb staff and from business and industry. Subjects range from labor-management relations to systems engineering. Content will vary from year to year dependent both on student interests and on developments in the area covered.

**SPECIAL TOPICS**

These three-credit courses represent the two opportunities for electives at Webb. The first is a humanities or social science course chosen by the students from a list of suggestions provided by the Dean and augmented by the students themselves. If sufficient interest in a topic exists, distinguished members of academia and/or industry are sought to teach the courses. These courses are intended to broaden the students’ view of the world and are offered during the fall semester of the junior year, three class hours per week.

The second course is a technical elective again chosen by the students from a list provided by the Dean and augmented with their suggestions. This course provides an opportunity for Webb to engage distinguished visiting faculty to share their particular expertise and real world experience with interested students (and faculty).

These courses provide a way to either sharpen the focus of a student’s program or to expand the scope of his/her undergraduate experience. This course is offered three class hours per week in the final semester of the Webb academic program.

**PRACTICAL WORK (aka WINTER WORK)**

Webb will assist in securing positions with advice to the students and the establishment of liaison with various companies. The sequence usually consists of working as a helper mechanic in a shipyard the first year; as a cadet/observer in the engine room of a ship the second year; and in a professional capacity as an engineer in the industry the third and fourth years. The students are paid at the going rate of their jobs, sufficient to support themselves while away from school. Housing can usually be located through the company employment departments.

Each student is required to present a technical report on the practical work undertaken during each of the four winter intersessional periods. The immediate supervisor is also invited to comment on the student’s performance. Additionally, a Sophomore Sea Term Project is required following the work term spent aboard ship.

**ENGINEERING VISITS**

Visits of inspection are made by individual classes to nearby shipbuilding, dry docking and repair yards, other engineering plants, and to vessels in the vicinity. These visits are arranged through the courtesy of the managing officials of the companies.

In order to develop their powers of observation and to improve their ability to write technical reports, the students are required to submit brief reports of their observations immediately after each visit.

**PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY MEETINGS**

During the spring semester, the entire Junior class attends the Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in Houston, Texas. The entire Senior class attends the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) conference during the fall semester. Students regularly attend local professional society section meetings throughout the year.